When you select "Show All Properties", this is the resulting display:

You can scroll across to see more changes you can make to your column's properties in this view. When editing your columns in the Columns section of the data tab, there are two parts of defining column properties.

You can define the column's role. Read more about column types in the article Column Types and Properties.

Another way to change your column's properties is with the "Show All Properties" button:

Here are some of the changes you can make in order to change your column's role using the "Show All Properties" display.

You can also make these changes in the properties editor button. The changes are the same regardless of whether you make changes to your column in the "Show All Properties" view or with the edit button.

Below, you can make changes to the column behavior using type qualifiers and app formulas.

The type qualifier shows more information about the data type. This is also a place where there may be column constraints, such as Valid_If and Editable_If. There also may be minimum and maximum lengths for the pieces of data.

App formulas are expressions that are automatically computed in the app to populate the value of a column. This is not to be confused with spreadsheet formulas, which are computed in the backend spreadsheet. If a column has an app formula, the user of the app cannot provide a value to override the formula.

An app formula can also be used to automatically generate the value of a column rather than having a user's input. For instance, if you wanted to have a randomly generated unique value for a key, you would have UNIQUEID() as your app formula for that column.

You can also make changes to the column's description. Also, the display name can be changed using expressions, and the initial value of each cell can be determined as well.

Here's a recap of what properties determine a column's role and what properties determine its behavior.

Above, the key, label, read-only, and the other boxes determine a column's definition, what its role is. The initial value helps determine the column's behavior: what values it contains.

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